The species' Latin name "hyemalis" translates into "winter;" and the genus name, Junco, roughly means "bird of bushes or reeds" - referring to their preferred habitats. The breeding season of the Red-backed Junco in the Guadalupe Mountains extends from mid-April to mid-August (young birds in a nest as late as August 5).. 1995. The nest can be located on the ground or on low, horizontally oriented tree branches. Union 1998). Northern juncos typically have two clutches of three to five eggs each breeding season although under optimal weather conditions, a third clutch is possible. The bird life of Texas, University of Texas Press, Austin. Nestlings are actively fed by both parents and are able to fledge after another two weeks or so. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Range: High mountains of Mexico, southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Described as snapping, twittering or fast trills that are reminiscent of the rattling of small ball bearings. Text by Robert C. Tweit (2006). Checklist of North American birds, 7. The female lays 3-5, slightly glossy, pale bluish-white to white eggs (see Harrison [1979] for a photo of markings). DISTRIBUTION. In Arizona 87% of breeding records for this form came from habitats containing ponderosa pine mixed with other species such as pinyon pine, oak or Douglas fir (LaRue 2005). Please contact them directly with respect to any copyright or licensing questions. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2005. professional advice. These small, sparrow-like birds have an average length of 6 inches or 15 cm. Range: In the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, United States. The plumage ranges in color from various shades of grey to grey-brown, with conspicuous white outer tail feathers, and either a grey or blackish head. Thank you. College Station TX 77843-2258 BREEDING HABITAT. Eastern vs. Western Junco Species Depending on where you live, your juncos may look different. Elsewhere Dark-eyed Juncos breed from Alaska across Canada to Southern Labrador and northern Newfoundland and south into the northeastern United States and the Appalachian Mountains (Slate-colored Junco). Natural ranges can be quite extensive (a single flock of juncos can feed in an area of ten to twelve acres), while human-modified ranges (i.e. In mainland North America, 4 of these were formerly classified as separate species, the Slate-colored, White-winged, Oregon and Gray-headed juncos. Foraging Flocks It has smaller seeds that juncos love, without very much milo. Southern populations are sedentary (non-migratory) except for some altitudinal movements to avoid severe weather conditions. Eggs … document.write(''); Like most sparrows, the Northern Junco will eat a wide variety of foods. Dark-eyed Junco is a complex taxon of identifiable forms, groups and subspecies. Breeding may also occur in the mountains of the west, throughout New England, and down the Appalachian Mountains into northern Georgia. The Smallest Bird on Earth Weighs Less than a Penny! e-mail: Oberholser, H. C. 1974. A unique education agency, the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service teaches Texans wherever they live, extending research-based knowledge to benefit their families and communities. Of these, 3 were confirmed in latilong-quad 31104-H7 in the Guadalupe Mountains where Oberholser (1974) reported breeding by the Red-backed Junco form (J. h. dorsalis). Dark-eyed Junco the Snow Birds Nesting, Mating, Feeding Habits A field guide to western birds’ nests. 1998. The female builds the nest all on her own. The Guadalupes are the only site where this author reported breeding in Texas by Dark-eyed Junco. The first clutch is laid in late spring (mid-April) and the second in mid-summer (mid-July). These relatively modest trends are an encouraging sign for the future of Dark-eyed Juncos in Texas. They are either pinkish or whitish in color. Depending on the…. The TOS handbook of Texas birds. They typically feed on the ground and move about both by walking and by hopping (a single hop can cover thirty centimeters). Oregon and Gray-headed juncos are usually found in the western half of the state. The Northern Junco is small, dark-colored sparrow with a long list of very descriptive common names including “dark-eyed junco,” “slate-colored junco,” “snow bird,” and “winter finch.” Image credit: Trisha M. Shears, Wikimedia Commons. Junco hyemalis, (Information for this species page was gathered in part, by Ms. Stephanie Hughes for Biology 220W at Penn State New Kensington in Spring 2009). Oxford University Press, New York. Dark-eyed Juncos are often called “Snowbirds,” because many people believe their return from their northern breeding grounds foretells the return of cold and snowy weather. 2005). Range: High mountains of Costa Rica and Panama. They have gray hoods and backs and white bellies, and dark tails with distinctive white, lateral tail feathers. Lockwood, M. W. and B. Freeman. Rates of parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) vary widely (Harrison 1979, Nolan et al. They sport a bi-colored bill—dark gray on top, silvery on the bottom—a gray head, lighter gray throat and breast, gray and rust wings, a red back, and dark eyes, with a dark eye smudge. Mating and Reproduction Nests take three to seven days to build and they are seldom re-used. It is only provided for educational and entertainment purposes, and is in no way intended as a substitute for All four of these subspecies winter in Texas along with two other forms, the Pink-sided and Red-backed juncos (Oberholser 1974, Am, Ornithol. Why We Love Juncos . July 20, 2014 . Migrate south for the winter. Range: Southern Rocky Mountains from Colorado to central Arizona. Texas A&M University The first clutch is laid in late spring (mid-April) and the second in mid-summer (mid-July). In winter northern populations move south to the entire United States (except the Florida peninsula) and northern Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995, Nolan et al. It overwinters in almost all of the lower forty-eight states (and down into northern Mexico) and has an equally broad summer/breeding range across Canada and Alaska. This site is licensed under a Creative Commons License. The final probable record and 2 possible records deserve further study. Two successful clutches may be raised in one season. Eggs are incubated by the female for just under two weeks. Range: The Pacific coast mountains from southeastern Alaska to California. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. The species' Latin name "hyemalis" translates into "winter;" and the genus name, Junco, roughly means "bird of bushes or reeds" - referring to their preferred habitats. These birds nest in well concealed locations either on the ground or low in shrubs or trees. Sometimes it is simply a gathering of pine needles and grasses, sometimes it has a foundation of sticks on top of which softer materials are layered. Please note: Any content published on this site is commentary or opinion, and is protected under Free Speech. Range: Northern Rocky Mountains from southern Alberta to Idaho and Wyoming. 2002). A male will sing from the top of a tall tree to claim an area of two to three acres. The nest may be made of a variety of materials. This page was last updated on Terms Of Use / Copyright Restrictions, Site Privacy Policy | Report Abuse | Website Administrator | Web Design by Drupal Development Services. So it is not as attractive to Brown-headed Cowbirds and House Sparrows, if you'd rather not feed those two species. During the 1987-1992 field work of the TBBA project, observers reported 9 breeding records for Dark-eyed Juncos. Harrison, H. H. 1979. Near human habitations juncos may also build their nests in the crawl spaces underneath buildings or even inside the buildings themselves or on window ledges. The Northern Junco is a very common bird at almost any winter bird feeder throughout the United States.