The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. A Tale of Two Chefs. We hope this will help you to understand Punjabi better. The Arabic and modern-Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. Later, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese (words like ਅਲਮਾਰੀ), Greek (words like ਦਾਮ), Chagatai (words like ਕੈਂਚੀ, ਸੁਗਾਤ), Japanese (words like ਰਿਕਸ਼ਾ), Chinese (words like ਚਾਹ, ਲੀਚੀ, ਲੁਕਾਠ) and English (words like ਜੱਜ, ਅਪੀਲ, ਮਾਸਟਰ), though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic..  Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government.  Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education.  In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province. , In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. It is the third most spoken language in the United Kingdom after the native British languages and Polish. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. At the beginning of a word they became voiceless unaspirated consonants (k, c, ṭ, t, p) followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (g, j, ḍ, d, b), preceded by a low-rising tone. Hello friends, hope all is well. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Ess dunia vich jisda ant nahin,ess ni “Maa” keha ਕਹਿੰਦੇ ਹਾਂ...!! Revised edition. lahaur rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. A reference grammar of Punjabi.  There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. c. Jadon vi main ale duvale sarkal le aayea c. ਨਹੀਂ ਤਾਂ ਅਸੀਂ ਜਿੱਤ ਕੇ ਸਾਰੇ ਸੰਸਾਰ The word Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for 'Five Waters', referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. Punjabi is unusual among Indo-Aryan languages in its use of lexical tone; see § Tone below for examples. Kese da dil todna aje takk nahin aayea menu. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are areas where Puadhi is spoken and the dialect area also includes Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar area in Fatehabad district.  Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi. Gurmukhi is the official script for the language in Punjab, India while Shahmukhi is used in Punjab, Pakistan; other national and local scripts have also been in use historically and currently, as discussed in § Writing systems. Pyar karna jeda apni maa ton sikya Maine.... ਕਿਉਂਕਿ ਅਸੀਂ ਮਾਂ ਦੇ ਕਦਮਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਜੰਨਤ ਖੋਲ੍ਹੀਆਂ ਸਨ" ਮੇਰਾ ਸਿਰ ਮਾਤਾ ਦੇ ਕਦਮਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਸੀ..! ਬੱਚਾ ਬਣੀਏ ! Malwai is spoken in the southern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Pakistan. Malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi Abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Jaswant Singh Kanwal (1919–2020), Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India. Most important words in Punjabi, like ਅਰਦਾਸ and ਰਹਿਰਾਸ, and common words, like ਨਹਿਰ, ਜ਼ਮੀਨ, ਗਜ਼ਲ, etc., have all come out of Persian. , Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Puadhi. The earliest Punjabi literature is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th century Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnah which is primarily spiritual and mystical in tone. The British Empire employed Urdu in its administration of North-Central and Northwestern India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali language was used as the language of administration. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 44% of its population. Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). "Mind your language—The movement for the preservation of Punjabi". Hindi language Britannica com.