Before his royal election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia (1147–1152, as Frederick III). Henry III - Holy Roman Emperor - 1046-1056. Lothar II - Holy Roman Emperor - 1133-1137. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last reigning Roman emperor. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg. He was born in Mystra[17] as the eighth of ten children of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš of Kumanovo. With Imperium Maius, the emperor was also granted the power to appoint governors of imperial provinces without the interference of the Senate. Due to the establishment of the Concert of Europe, which largely resisted popular nationalist and liberal tendencies, Francis became viewed as a reactionary later in his reign. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. When Peace returned at the end of it all, Austria could not be said to have emerged as triumphant as it did from the war against the Turks. His son Louis the Pious succeeded him. Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia (as Charles I), Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus, consul and pontifex maximus. When the Emperor died in 1125 the electors, rejecting the hereditary principle, chose Lothar, duke of Saxony, to succeed him. The title was held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany and the Kingdom of Italy (Imperial Northern Italy). Francis I continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous; however, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I - 1556-1564. But this was a stubborn war that would drag on till 1714, nine years after Leopold's death which, in truth, barely had an effect on the warring nations of Europe. Theodosius I acceded to the purple in the East in 379 and in the West in 394. Lothar I - Holy Roman Emperor - 833-834 - 840-855. For his personal holiness and efforts to support the Church, Pope Bl. Francis II (German: Franz II., Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In the era of Diocletian and beyond, princeps fell into disuse and was replaced with dominus ("lord");[12] later emperors used the formula Imperator Caesar NN. At the same time, he used his diplomatic skills to maintain the necessary unity between the Genovese, Venetian, and Byzantine troops. Berengar I (c. 845 – 7 April 924) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death. Pompey and Caesar are both thought to have worn the triumphal toga and other triumphal dress at public functions. The Empire quickly fell apart after his death, never to be restored, with the Empire splintering into five separate successor kingdoms. The reunited Empire would not last. Princeps, because of its republican connotation, was most commonly used to refer to the emperor in Latin (although the emperor's actual constitutional position was essentially "pontifex maximus with tribunician power and imperium superseding all others") as it was in keeping with the façade of the restored Republic; the Greek word basileus ("king") was modified to be synonymous with emperor (and primarily came into favour after the reign of Heraclius) as the Greeks had no republican sensibility and openly viewed the emperor as a monarch. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the inheritance claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce. •Julio-Claudian Emperors • Augustus 31 BCE-14 CE • Tiberius 14-37 • Caligula 37-41 • Claudius 41-54 • Nero 54-68 • Year of 4 emperors 68-69 Constantine refused this offer. After the Emperor had pardoned him and left the city, Crescentius II again rebelled, deposing Gregory V and installing John XVI as Pope. As a result, historians distinguish the Augustan period as the principate and the period from Diocletian to the 7th-century reforms of Emperor Heraclius as the dominate (from the Latin for "lord".). The Senate could then award or withhold the extraordinary honour of a triumph; the triumphal commander retained the title until the end of his magistracy. His conquests brought him into conflict with the Byzantine Empire and with the Muslims of the Fatimid Caliphate, who both held territories in southern Italy. [2] Nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, efforts were made to portray the emperors as leaders of a republic. The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople in 330 AD. His reign marked a high point of the medieval imperial rule and a relatively peaceful period for the Empire. He was the eldest son and heir of King John of Bohemia, who died at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346. Conrad was the first of the Salian dynasty of Emperors. In 1355 he was crowned King of Italy on 6 January and Holy Roman Emperor on 5 April. Otto II was made joint-ruler of Germany in 961, at an early age, and his father named him co-Emperor in 967 to secure his succession to the throne. The successors of the emperors of Nicaea continued until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 under Constantine XI Palaiologos. A triumphal imperator of the Republic had the right to wear the toga picta (of solid purple, richly embroidered) for the duration of the triumphal rite. The Duke of Bavaria from 995, Henry became King of Germany ("Rex Romanorum") following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III in 1002, was crowned King of Italy ("Rex Italiae") in 1004, and was crowned by the Pope as Emperor in 1014. During the Late Republic, the most powerful had this right extended. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. Otto finally returned to Germany in August 972 and died of natural causes in 973. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was notably the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries, which proves the fact that the Title was purely elective not hereditary. The son of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Gisela of Burgundy, Emperor Henry II was a great-grandson of German King Henry I and a member of the Bavarian branch of the Ottonian dynasty. His rule came to an end after the fall of the last major Byzantine city, Corinth. His son Andreas Palaiologos continued claims on the Byzantine throne until he sold the title to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, the grandparents of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. The concept of the Roman Empire was renewed in the West with the coronation of the king of the Franks, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), as Roman emperor by the Pope on Christmas Day, 800. He never visited the city of Rome during his reign[13], which marks the beginning of a series of "barracks emperors" who came from the army. He was the last emperor before Otto the Great was crowned in 962, after a 38-year interregnum. Roman emperors were the designated rulers of the empire which started after the end of the Roman Republic. Henry II married Cunigunde of Luxembourg, who later became his queen and empress. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles's younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. Rudolf was the first of the count-kings, so-called by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller. He became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Alternative History is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died.