Plato and Aristotle were chiefly, though not in the same degree, concerned with goodness and with its realization in the state. There could no sooner be one kind of phronesis for all types of animals than there could be one kind of medicine for all of them. A constitution is the ordering [, The constitution has to do with the end or goal of the city-state. # Supranote 8 # Supranote 6 # SCT, p 718 # Ibid, at p 110 # http://Jurisprudence - Natural Law.html accessed on 19th October, 2015 at 2:45 pm # Dias R.W.M: Jurisprudence, p 65 # Supranote 6, at p 91 # Cohen & Cohen: Readings in Jurisprudence and Legal Philosophy, (1951), p 660 # Supranote 6 # Aggarwal Nomita, Jurisprudence Legal Theory, Central Law Publication, 1st Ed. Phronesis possesses the same moral characteristic (hexis) as political science. It follows also that the concept of natural law has had a very strange destiny in Greece. Rules of law can be studied on the basis of a priori method, i.e., to accept a thing without an equity or observation. The Greeks did not regard the law exactly in the same way, since their genius was rather metaphysical. However, Socrates did not deny the authority of the positive law but he pleaded for the necessity of natural law for security and stability of the community. From the unmoved mover as the first cause, the movement of being runs through the cosmos down to the last thing that is moved and, in the realm of humanity, down to human action. To the Greeks law stood over the society; it was the binding force of the city, it was born with the city itself, it was the force that brought and held the city together. This [relation of ruler and ruled] is present in living things, but it derives from all of nature. What is right by nature is not given as an object that would lend itself, once and for all, to the statement in correct propositions. The Right is the Law Among Men who are Equal. It is binding over all the countries at all countries at all the times and no man – made law will be valid if it is contrary to the law of nature. Conclusion From these considerations it follows that natural law is far from being a purely academic speculation, just good enough for people with leisure to brood over; it is fundamental even in practical life. While physikon has the same validity (dynamis) everywhere and is independent of what men think, the nomikon refers to things that could be ordered one way or another, since in terms of substance they are obviously indifferent. Therewith the distinction between Greeks and barbarians, fundamental for Greek cultural consciousness, vanished into thin air. Now we are in a position to dispel the obscurities that were caused by Aristotle’s dominant interest in the polis. Their interest, however, did not center in the individual. Aristotle's association with natural law may be due to the interpretation given to his works by Thomas Aquinas. Again it was by appeal to principles of natural law that American judges, professing to interpret the Constitution, resisted the attempt of state legislation to modify and restrict the unfettered economic freedom of the individual. Phronesis is not knowledge about the unchangeable order of the world; it relates only to human affairs (anthropina) and, among them, again only to those which can be objects of meaningful deliberation (NE 1141 b 8 ff.). does not distinguish accurately between arbitrary legislation on which the nomika are grounded, and the by no means arbitrary but rather strictly delimited legislation concerning the physica. Some critics believe that the context of this remark suggests only that Aristotle advised that it could be rhetorically advantageous to appeal to such a law, especially when the "particular" law of one's own city was averse to the case being made, not that there actually was such a law; Moreover, they claim that Aristotle considered two of the three candidates for a universally valid, natural law provided in this passage to be wrong. The following passage makes clear that the study of law is subordinate to constitutional theory: The laws ought to be laid down (and everybody does lay them down) with a view to the constitutions, but not the constitutions to the laws. Indeed, Western political philosophy likewise originated in this gifted people. Commending the function of natural law in liberating people from politico – legal disorder and tracing its evolution, Blackstone observed: “the natural law being co – existent with mankind and emanating from God Himself, is superior to all other laws. The problems of phronesis as the faculty of mediation run parallel to those of the tension between the right and the actual order in the polis. This is the primordial norm of moral being and conduct. My research through this seminar deals with its usages separately rather than attempt to unify them into a single theory. Nevertheless, to the Hellenic thinker they appeared as realities of an ahistorical realm of being. Aristotle provides (, Education is the other major concern of legislative science. It is quite understandable, then, that the philosophical conception of the natural law should have made its first appearance in the area of Western culture among the ancient Greeks.